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Monday, July 28

  1. page Les sonneurs et leurs musique edited Les Sonneurs et leur Musique Recherchés et méprisés dans le monde entier Les sonneurs joueu…

    Les Sonneurs et leur Musique

    Recherchés et méprisés dans le monde entier
    Les sonneursjoueurs de hautbois populaires sont souvent des personnalités
    ...
    du revivalisme, dans certaines régions la musique
    ...
    est devenue un instrument national et un support de l'identité régionale :l'identité: en Catalogne
    ...
    et dans quelquescertains lieux d'Italie.
    ...
    réunion annuelle à St. Martial dans les Cévennes,Cévennes au sud
    ...
    de la SainteVierge de Zaragoza;
    ...
    l'Europe, les « sonneurs » ont encore
    ...
    vivantes des peuples:peuples.
    Au Maroc,
    ...
    pour les touristes) à Marrakech,touristes), le guérisseur
    ...
    montagnes de Tanger; en Tunisie unTanger ainsi que le groupe jouaitjouant pour les touristes dans l‘hôtel.un hôtel tunisien.
    Le sonneurmusicien qui jouait
    ...
    noces à Sanaa,Sanaa dans la capitale du Yémen,Yémen a croisé
    ...
    à Chiva en Ouzbékistanau Pakistan (ancien lieu
    ...
    kirghiz Osh.
    Attendant

    Attendant
    qu'un client
    ...
    trouvé le sonneurjoueur assis dans
    ...
    ville pakistanaise Quetta au Pakistan.Quetta. Le sonneur
    ...
    des mariés au temple ou encore
    ...
    le désert TharThâr (à la
    ...
    le Pakistan). Les
    Les
    musiciens du
    ...
    notre voyage du subcontinent indien à la Chineau sub-continent indien, nous visitâmes, en passant
    ...
    col du Karakorum, nous visitâmesCaracorum, un sonneur local dans les montagnes du Hindoukouch. Nousà l'ouest de la Chine.
    Nous
    avons rencontré un groupe de musiciensautre musicien dans le désert du Taklamakan,Taclamacan jouant pour
    ...
    nocturne des Ouigours;ouighours; un autre
    ...
    avec deux tiges. Noustiges (instrument présent dans la collection du MUSIC).
    Nous
    nous sommes
    ...
    musiciens à HanoïHanoi ou sur
    ...
    de Sumatra.
    Et nous

    Nous
    étions toujours
    ...
    impressionnés par les caractères et les expressions impressionnantesle rayonnement de leursces visages.
    Les sonneursjoueurs sont recherchés
    ...
    ont une position marginalisé etsituation difficile dans
    ...
    voyage (les Sintissintis et les Roms)roms) appelés gitans
    ...
    la vie extrêmement difficile. Et de mêmeMême les musiciens
    ...
    rue rencontrent jusqu’a nos jours souvent cele mélange d'admiration
    ...
    sentiments, elle était souventest condamnée violemment par les
    ...
    christianisme. Au Moyen-Age,Moyen-âge, non seulement
    ...
    des hautbois populairespopulaire est condamnée
    ...
    groupes islamistes comme(comme les talibans.talibans). En Inde, les sonneursils font partiespartie des intouchables. Les
    Les
    traditionalistes qui engagent des sonneursmusiciens pour des
    ...
    bouddhisme tibétain.
    Et
    Et pourtant, les hautbois qui étaient joués sont toujours présents
    ...
    - par exemple de nos joursexemple, dans le
    ...
    à Pâques (mais jamais(jamais à l'intérieur).l'intérieur) -. Les groupes
    ...
    joué lors des cérémonies el le rituelde rituels de guérison.
    ...
    la rue. Une
    Une
    rencontre (due
    ...
    ans à ThessalonikiThessalonique lors d'
    ...
    du sud, dans des régions du monde où ces
    ...
    de langue commune,commune mais la
    ...
    nous arrivaient souventégalement d'échanger un
    ...
    grandissait notre «collection»collection de hautbois
    ...
    à Céret au Sud de laen France (www.music-ceret.com).(www.music-ceret.com ).
    Jamais nous
    ...
    d'être dépossédés.
    Nous

    Nous
    avons toujours
    ...
    qu'il n'était le plus souventpas toujours possible de
    ...
    exemple frère cadet) et lacadet). La transcription dans
    ...
    générations de musiciens,musiciens qui ont
    ...
    leur nom. Pourtant,
    Pourtant,
    je regrette
    ...
    des musiciens populaires,populaires représentés dans ce livre, il ne
    ...
    pas oublier qu'il existe aussi les hautboïstes
    ...
    dans cette publication, sauf le photo.publication.
    Histoire
    ...
    Égypte, les Etrusques, Romains)étrusques, romains) et le Moyen-Age,Moyen-âge, il existe
    ...
    également des héritiers.héritiers éloignés. Les hautbois
    ...
    et opéras. Ces
    Ces
    « ancêtres
    ...
    à partir dude 7ème siècle
    ...
    et main gauche,gauche. Les auloi sont peints déjà sur les
    ...
    à vent dominantdominants dans tout
    ...
    les hétaïres, leles hautbois accompagnaitaccompagnaient la partie
    ...
    réunions appelées symposionssymposiums des citoyens.citoyens respectables. Ils étaient
    ...
    pétrissage du pain) etpain), chez les militaires.militaires, lors des sports de combats.
    Dans l'Ancien
    ...
    Jean 18,27). En
    En
    général, l'instrument
    ...
    romain, les Tibiaetibiae étaient indispensables
    ...
    pour les loisirs, ils voyageaientloisirs. Spécialement estimés, les musiciens étrusques (siboulo) étaient sur les routes traditionnelles du commerce
    ...
    guerres. Les musiciens étrusques (jouantinstruments en roseau accompagnaient l'empereur Alexandre le Sibulo) étaient spécialement estimés.
    Des sonneurs
    Grand sur le chemin des guerres.
    Les musiciens ambulants
    parcouraient l'Europe
    ...
    et étaient musiciens ambulantsprésents dans les
    ...
    codex Manesse. Le
    Le
    hautbois était
    ...
    (1513) de Lucerne,Lucerne (Suisse), l'image impressionnante
    ...
    carnaval.
    Dans lesces représentations des
    Au 17ème en Europe, peu à peu, les hautbois sont chassés des cités vers les campagnes (les bergers). Ainsi, l'auteur d'un poème de cette époque laisse parler, avec mépris, le hautbois moderne au hautbois traditionnel :
    « Vas-t-enVa-t-en hautbois paysans,paysan, mon son
    ...
    faut en tanttemps de guerre
    A l'église et dans les cours, toi tu dois rester éloigné,
    A moi, on prépare le jus du raisin, à toi la levure de la bière
    Tu restes au village, j'habite le château et les villes
    Tu te décores avec du fil de sous et moi une chaîne d'or »
    ...
    partir du 18ème ,18ème, les instruments
    ...
    se retirèrent d'abord, pour disparaître ensuited'abord dans les régions paysannes.paysannes, pour disparaître ensuite. Mais ils
    ...
    comme instruments nationaux.régionaux.
    En Asie
    ...
    jusqu'à nos jours ; maisjours, pourtant bloqué par le développement de plus en plus souvent les hautbois sont remplacés par la clarinette.
    ...
    par les Portugais et Espagnolsportugais et adoptés
    ...
    indigènes, ils ne sont depuis restésplus en usage uniquementde nos jours que dans certaine
    Roseau chantant et anche mystérieuse
    Sous le nom de roseau, deux groupes d'instruments peuvent être discernés : les hautbois populaires et les clarinettes populaires.
    ...
    corps de l’hautboisl'instrument est constitué
    ...
    a un troudoigt pour le
    ...
    joués ensemble. Dans
    Dans
    l'Antiquité, les hautbois aussi (Auloï, Tibiae)(auloï, tibia) étaient construits
    ...
    bois ont souventen général plusieurs trous ; ilsqui influencent la
    ...
    bois se fissurent.fissure. D'après son
    ...
    ou une trompette.trompette en bois. La différence
    ...
    pas d'anche (cf(cf. ci-dessous) auquel
    ...
    beaucoup de textes,texte, on parle
    ...
    dans la biblebible, ou dans légende du dératiseur : «Le joueur de Flûteles contes de Hamelin»).fée).
    Pour les hautbois comme pour les clarinettes, le son se fait par des lamelles fines en bambou, les anches, que le souffle du musicien fait vibrer, ce qui fait naître les ondes sonores. Les hautbois sont munis d'une anche double qui s'ouvre et se ferme, ressemblant aux cordes vocales dans le larynx. Beaucoup de cultures musicales traditionnelles utilisent certaines tiges comprimées au lieu de lamelles en bambou.
    Les clarinettes fonctionnent avec une lamelle simple fixée au dessus d'une incision en l'ouvrant et fermant rythmiquement (anche battante).
    ...
    provoque les émotions.sentiments. Il ne
    ...
    le faire leur instruments rire ou
    ...
    va être bonne,bonne ou exceptionnelle ou
    ...
    ont une certaine durée de vie:vie différente : en les
    ...
    plus utilisables. Les
    Tous les
    efforts pour
    ...
    une analyse scientifiquescientifique, se sont
    ...
    ou un Calamuscalamus de plume. SonLe bout inférieur est donc monté sur
    ...
    dans la cavité buccalebouche et réglées
    ...
    du souffle. En
    En
    Europe, on
    ...
    ce qui imposesignifie un jeu
    ...
    ses joues gonflées. Pendantgonflées pendant qu'il la souffle dans l'instrument ill'instrument. Il inspire en
    ...
    par le nez,nez de façon
    ...
    son jeu. IlDe cette façon, il créé ainsi une longue
    ...
    mélodique.
    Le Sonson magique
    Dans toute l'histoire de l'Humanité, toutes les fêtes et célébrations, religieuses ou profanes, ne pouvaient se faire sans hautbois. Le son magique servait les prêtres, les guérisseurs, les chefs militaires, les amoureux et les gens en deuil.
    ...
    roseaux sur l'ilel'île de Sumatra
    ...
    des liens avec les déesses mères qui sont aussi les déessesentre la déesse mère et celle de la
    ...
    Kybele et Déméter. Les AuloïDementer.
    Les auloïs
    étaient étroitement
    ...
    de la réincarnation.Renaissance. Dans sa
    ...
    hautboïstes étaient l’instrument des satyres,
    ...
    de musiciens responsableresponsables des actes
    ...
    groupe d'esclaves syriennesnommés les sonneurs syriens qui étaient aussi célèbrecélèbres pour leur
    ...
    art d'aimer. Des
    Des
    mosaïques antiques
    ...
    que les Tibiaetibiae étaient joués
    ...
    est liée à la forceaux forces de la
    ...
    guérison des maladies.malades puisqu'elle exerçait son influence sur le public. Le sonneur
    ...
    est l'instrument non seulement de la transgression des limites etlimites, de la sensualité mais aussiet de la
    ...
    de mobiliser des forces a fait
    ...
    chez les grecsGrecs antiques, les étrusques,Etrusques, les romains,Romains, et les tournois du Moyen-Age.Moyen-âge en Europe. Ils sont
    ...
    pays asiatiques. Par exemple nousNous avons rencontré le couple hautbois-tambourhautbois tambour pendant le
    ...
    cheval au Laddak.Ladakh.
    Vu l'effet
    ...
    celle de Rome etRome, chez les
    ...
    de l'Empire Osman.Ottoman. Il était
    ...
    troupe élite de « Janissaires ». Tandisdes Janissaires.
    Tandis
    que l'occident
    ...
    les grands tambours-marmites)tambours) dans la
    ...
    les hautbois populaires étaient acceptés plutôt dans les
    ...
    musique militaire. A
    Il y avait des hautboïstes à
    la cour de France, il y avaitet des hautboïstes et les sonneurs bretons
    ...
    musiques populaires européens comme dans
    ...
    de l'empire Osmanottoman (Turquie, Maghreb).
    ...
    trouvent le Shenaischenai des indiens,Indiens, le Dudukduduk des arméniensArméniens et géorgiens,Georgiens le Meymey des turcsTurcs et certaines
    ...
    subtil trouve d'avantagedavantage de reconnaissance
    ...
    roseaux, dans les musiquesla musique du jazz et musiquesmusique du monde.
    (view changes)
    9:20 am
  2. page Schalmeispieler und ihre Musik edited Die Schalmeispieler und ihre Musik Weltweit gesucht und geächtet ... Trance gesteigert wir…

    Die Schalmeispieler und ihre Musik

    Weltweit gesucht und geächtet
    ...
    Trance gesteigert wird; manchewird. Manche sind Schlangenbändiger
    ...
    neu belebt, mancherorts zum Nationalinstrument
    ...
    Südfrankreich (dem UrsprungsgebietUrsprungs­gebiet der Troubadours
    Wir reisten während 25 Jahren zu Schalmeiern in Europa, Asien, Afrika und Lateinamerika. Wir trafen sie an ihrem jährlichen Treffen in den südfranzösischen Cevennen und bei den nächtlichen Festen der Bretagne, in den Prozessionen zu Ehren der Stadtheiligen in Sagarossa, an Weihnachten in Neapel und an ihrem Jahrestreffen im italienischen Scapoli, am Südende des Nationalparks der Abruzzen. Ausserhalb Europas zählen sie in vielen Ländern noch zur direkt überlieferten Kultur des Volkes: Wir hörten in Marokko die Schlangenbeschwörer, die heutzutage für Touristen spielen, begegneten dem Heiler einer Suffigruppe im Süden des Landes und dem Dorfmusiker in den Bergen von Tanger, aber auch der schicken Musikantengruppe im tunesischen Hotel. Wir stiessen zufällig auf den Schalmeibläser an der Hochzeitsfeier in Jemens Hauptstadt Sanaa und suchten einen Musiker in seinem Haus in Chiva (Usbekitstan) auf, einem der alten zentralasiatischen Zentren der Seidenstrassen oder im Kyrgysischen Oz; wir fanden Schalmeier im Staub am Strassenrand sitzend im pakistanischen Quetta, darauf wartend angeheuert zu werden; Schamleier spielten im Hochzeitstzug in Ajmer (Rajasthan) und im zugehörigen Tempelritual oder in der Wüste Tar (hart an der Grenze zwischen Indien und Pakistan); Tempelmusiker führten die hinduistische Prozession in Südindien an; wir suchten einen regionalen Schalmeispieler auf der langen Autoreise vom indischen Subkontinent über den Korakorumpass nach Westchina auf und trafen einen beim nächtlichen Tanz der Uiguren in der westchinesischen Wüste Taklamakan und einen anderen im Konservatorium von Hotan, der sich mit dem Bau einer Urform befasst, die nur aus zwei Halmen besteht. Wir kamen mit Musikern in Hanoi zusammen und auf der Insel Sumatra. Und immer wieder waren wir von ihrer Ausstrahlung beeindruckt, die sich in ihren Gesichtszügen spiegelt.
    Schalmeispieler sind als Musiker zwar begehrt, haben aber als Berufsgruppe in vielen Ländern einen schweren Stand. Die zwiespältige Einstellung der Gesellschaft die sie erfahren, kennt man in Europa vor allem gegenüber den Fahrenden, den Sinti und Rom, welche die Sesshaften, die ihnen oft das Leben ungemein erschweren, Zigeuner nennen. Auch Strassenmusikanten begegnen vielerorts einer Mischung aus Bewunderung und Verachtung durch die Bevölkerung, die ihnen mit allerlei Vorschriften und Schikanen Schwierigkeiten bereitet. Da die Schalmeimusik die Gefühle mobilisiert und seit dem Altertum mit der Erotik verbunden ist, wird sie von fundamentalistischen Kreisen verdammt, sowohl im Islam wie im Christentum. Im Mittelalter wurden nicht nur die Musiker kirchlich verfolgt sondern bisweilen alle die mit ihnen in Kontakt traten. Heute noch ist die Schalmeimusik von islamistischen Gruppen wie den Taliban besonders geächtet. In Indien gilt die Musikerkaste als unrein; Traditionalisten, die Schalmeier zu einer Hochzeit engagieren, verkehren mit ihnen nur über Mittelsmänner. Mehr Achtung geniessen Tempelmusiker, besonders im tibetischen Buddhismus. Aber Schalmeien wurden und werden auch in Prozessionen gespielt, beispielsweise am Osterfest in Nordguatemala vor der Kirche - aber nie in deren Innenraum. Religiöse Gruppierungen, die der Mystik nahe stehen, wissen die Schalmei zu schätzen, beispielsweise die Hamadscha in Marokko, welche Heilungsrituale mit Schalmeimusik gestalten.
    Wir trafen die Schalmeispieler nachdem wir auf dem Markt oder auf der Strasse nach ihnen gefragt hatten und manchmal begegneten wir ihnen zufällig auf der Strasse. Eine Begegnung, Zufall oder Fügung, stand auch am Anfang unserer Reisen: Meine Frau Verena Nil suchte vor fast 30 Jahren in Thessaloniki auf einer gemeinsamen Arbeitsreise das Gespräch mit einem an einer Bushaltestelle wartenden Musiker, der ein Instrument in der Hand hielt, da sie wusste, dass ich ein Blasinstrument lernen wollte. Er lud uns auf den Abend zu sich in die Taverne und der Klang des Instrumentes faszinierte uns. Von da an reisten wir Jahr für Jahr auf den Kulturstrassen zwischen Asien und Europa, die als Seidenstrassen bekannt sind, sowie nach Afrika und Südamerika, in eine der Weltregionen, in der diese Volksrohrblattinstrumente noch lebendig sind. Oft konnten wir gegenseitig die Sprache des Anderen nicht verstehen und schon gar nicht sprechen aber die Musik, Gesten und Mimik sowie manchmal eine kleine Zeichnung ermöglichten eine Verständigung. Manchmal tauschten wir ein mitgebrachtes Instrument oder erwarben eines. So entstand unsere Instrumentensammlung, welche die Grundlage des Musik-Zentrums in Céret (Frankreich) (http://www.music-ceret.com/ ) bildet.
    Wir machten niemals Tonaufzeichnungen, die von den Musikern, meist auf Grund unguter früherer Erfahrungen, oft als Ausbeutung ihres Könnens erlebt werden.
    ...
    in eine der Sprachen dieses Buches ohnehinandere Sprache unzulänglich gewesen
    Nebst den Volksmusikern gibt es auch die meist in Konzertsälen und Tonstudios spielenden Schalmeibläser der europäischen „alten“ Musik, insbesondere des Barockzeitalters und der Renaissance; sie sind in dieser Veröffentlichung nicht vertreten.
    Geschichte
    Der Rohrblattklang begleitet die Menschheit seit der kulturellen Frühzeit. Gesicherte Dokumente finden sich vom 2. Jahrtausend v. u. Z. an im Kulturraum der Ägäis und des Mittelmeeres. Ein kontinuierlicher Kulturstrom reicht, bei allen Unterschieden und Veränderungen, von der Antike (Ägypten, Griechenland, Etrurien, Rom) über das Mittelalter zu den Schalmeikulturen der Gegenwart in Europa, Asien, Afrika und Lateinamerika, zum Jazz und zur Weltmusik. Schalmeien sind die Vorfahren unserer heutigen Oboen und Fagotte, der Klarinetten und Saxophone. Auch Akkordeon und Orgel sind entfernte Nachkommen. Volksoboen und Bambusklarinetten sind somit die einfachen und ursprünglichen Ahnen beliebter heutiger Instrumente, die an Volksfesten und Ritualen, in Konzertsälen, Tanzlokalen oder in Film und Oper zum Einsatz kommen. Diese Vorfahren sind einfach gebaut, bescheiden anzusehen aber aussergewöhnlich im Klang; sie sind den meisten Menschen unbekannt und werden oft verkannt.
    ...
    10:5; 1 KönigeKöni­ge 1:40; Jesaja
    Im römischen Reich waren die Tibiae für Opferhandlungen und andere Rituale unentbehrlich, aber auch zur Unterhaltung allgegenwärtig. Besonders geschätzte Musiker waren oft Etrusker (Instrumentenname: Sibulo). Auf den antiken Handels- und Kriegsrouten begleiteten Schalmeiinstrumente wohl ebenso Alexander den Grossen nach Indien, wie den Siegeszug des Islam.
    Schalmeier zogen durch das mittelalterliche Europa und waren auch in den folgenden Jahrhunderten Wandermusiker. Sie begleiteten die Minnesänger und sind daher auch in der Manesseschen Liederhandschrift abgebildet. Zu den Turnieren wurde im europäischen Mittelalter Schalmei geblasen. Schalmeier spielten an den Höfen und auf Jahrmärkten. Beispielsweise enthält die Luzerner Chronik von Diebold Schilling (1513) das eindrucksvolle Bild eines Schalmeiduos das an der Fasnacht (Karneval) den Bürgern zum Tanz aufspielt. In den Darstellungen der Totentänze war die Schalmei, die bei Beerdigungen die Totenklage anstimmte, eines der Instrumente, mit denen die Menschen aus dem Leben geleitet wurden.
    I
    m
    Im 17. Jahrhundert
    „Weg Bäurische Schallmey! Mein Klang muss dich vertreiben
    jch dien auf beede recht in Krieg und Friedens Zeit,
    Der Kirche und bey Hof, da musst ferne bleiben,
    mir wird der Reben Safft, dir Hefen Bier bereit,
    ...
    Schloss und
    Städten,
    Städten,
    dich ziert
    ...
    die Guldne
    Ketten."
    Ketten.”
    Vom 18. Jahrhundert an zogen sich die Volksinstrumente zurück und tauchten im frühen zwanzigsten Jahrhundert mancherorts ganz in den ländlichen Untergrund ab. Dort blieben sie aber in einigen Regionen lebendig, und erlebten in der zweiten Hälfte des 20.Jahrhundert ihre Rehabilitierung als regionale Nationalinstrumente.
    Kontinuierlicher verlief ihre Geschichte in Asien und Nordafrika, wo sich die musikalische Überlieferung teilweise bis heute ungebrochen erhalten hat, allerdings stark bedrängt vom Aufkommen der Klarinette. In Südamerika, wo Schalmeien in vielen Ländern durch Portugiesen und Spanier eingeführt und von der einheimischen Musik adoptiert wurden, sind sie inzwischen nur noch in umschriebenen Regionen Guatemalas und Perus in Gebrauch.
    Klingendes Rohr und
    und
    geheimnisvolles Blatt
    Unter dem Namen Schalmei können zwei in sich vielfältige Gruppen von Blasinstrumenten zusammengefasst werden; Volksoboen und Volksklarinetten.
    Der Instrumentenkörper der Oboen ist ein konisches oder zylindrisches Rohr aus einem harten Holz (z.B. Buchs, Olivenbaum, verschiedene Fruchtbaumhölzer, Teakhölzer, Ebenholz, vereinzelt auch Bambus). (Das Instrument kann auch von aussen gesehen eine konische Form haben, aber eine zylindrische Bohrung). Meist hat die Spielröhre 7 Spiellöcher für die Finger und ist ohne Klappenmechanik. Bei vielen Instrumenten gibt es auch ein Daumenloch, vereinzelt sogar zwei.
    Volksklarinetten sind fast immer aus Bambus. Sie sind oft gedoppelt, d.h. es gibt zwei Spielröhren, für jede Hand eine, die zusammen gespielt werden. In der Antike waren auch die Oboen (Auloi, Tibiae) nach diesem Doppelprinzip gebaut.
    ...
    wie die Instrumentenröhre,Instrumentenröhre oder separat
    Aufgrund der äusseren Erscheinung kann das Instrument mit einer Flöte oder Holztrompete verwechselt werden. Der entscheidende Unterschied liegt darin, dass diese beiden Instrumente keine Rohrblätter (siehe nachstehend) haben, denen die Schalmeien ihren besonderen, an Obertönen reichen Klang verdanken. In vielen Texten wird bis heute von Flöten gesprochen, wenn es sich um Schalmeien handelt. Früher hatte diese falsche Bezeichnung wohl auch damit zu tun, dass die Flötenmusik weit weniger verpönt war und somit ihre Erwähnung (beispielsweise in der Bibel oder in der Sage vom Rattenfänger von Hammeln) keinen Anstoss erregte.
    Sowohl bei den Oboen wie bei den Klarinetten wird er Klang durch dünne Bambuslamellen, die «Rohrblätter», erzeugt, die vom Atemstrom des Musiker in rhythmische Bewegungen versetzt werden, wodurch die dem Klang zugrunde liegenden Schallwellen entstehen. Bei den Oboen sind es «Doppelblätter» die sich öffnen und schliessen, ähnlich den Stimmbändern im menschlichen Kehlkopf. Viele traditionelle Musikkulturen verwenden bestimmte zusammengepresste Halme statt der Bambuslamellen. Klarinetten funktionieren mit einem einfachen Blättchen, das über einen Spalt im Instrument montiert ist und die Öffnung rhythmisch frei gibt und wieder verschliesst («Aufschlagzunge»). Es sind diese Bambuslamellen oder Halme, welche dem Instrument seinen besonderen Klang verleihen, der die Gefühle mobilisiert; er muss nicht als schön empfunden werden, aber bewegend und erregend sein. Erfahrene Musikanten können ihr Instrument in einer Art zu klingen bringen, die der menschlichen Stimme besonders nahe kommt und es zum Lachen oder Klagen bringen.
    ...
    Der magische Klang
    Über die meiste Zeit der Menschheitsgeschichte waren alle Feste und Feiern, religiöse und profane, nicht ohne Schalmeier durchführbar. Der magische Klang diente Priestern, Heilern und Heerführern, Liebenden und Trauernden.
    ...
    und Demeter. Auloi
    Auloi
    waren eng
    ...
    der syrischen Pfeiferinnen, welchePfeiferinnen,welche für ihre
    ...
    Tibiae im ganzenganzen, grossen römische
    Die Musik der Schalmei ist mit den Kräften des Lebens und der Zerstörung verbunden. Sie wurde immer auch zur Heilung von Krankheiten eingesetzt. Da diese Musik Macht über die Gefühle der Zuhörer besitzt, wird der Schalmeier als Magier wahrgenommen, der durch seine Musik Gewalt über Menschen erhält, wie der Rattenfänger von Hammeln. Die Schalmei ist Instrument der Grenzüberschreitung, der Sinnlichkeit und der Beziehung zum Übersinnlichen, zu Göttern und Dämonen, zu Teufel und Tod.
    ...
    zum einheimischen Kampfsport,Kampfsport wie bei
    Bei der aufstachelnden Wirkung, welche Schalmeien haben können, war es nahe liegend, dass sie im Militär eingesetzt wurden. Sie dienten im griechischen ebenso wie im römischen Heer. In der osmanisch-türkischen Armee waren sie das zentrale Melodieinstrument der Elitetruppe der Janitscharen. Während das Abendland deren Perkussion (vor allem die grossen Kesseltrommeln) in die „gehobene“ Konzertmusik einführte, wurden die Schalmeier in die westlichen Militärkapellen übernommen. Am französischen Hof gab es die Oboisten und bretonische Schalmeispieler waren noch im letzten Jahrhundert Militärmusiker in der französischen Armee.
    Die Verwendung der Schalmei als Militärinstrument hat auf ihren Stil in der Volksmusik Europas sowie im osmanischen Einflussbereich (Türkei, Maghreb) zurückgewirkt. Sie erhielt den Ruf schrill und monoton zu sein. Aber es gibt auch eine zarte und intime Stilrichtung mit einem lieblichen emotionalen Ausdruck, die sich vor allem in Asien bewahrt und kunstvolle weiterentwickelt hat. Sie wird mit zylindrisch gebauten Instrumenten gespielt. Dazu zählen der Benaresstil der Shenai in Indien, das Duduk in Armenien und Georgien, die Mey in der Türkei und ein Teil der Aufführungspraxis in Südostasien. In neuerer Zeit findet diese subtile Stilrichtung bei der Wiederbelebung der Schalmeimusik für den Jazz und die Weltmusik auch im Westen vermehrt Beachtung.
    (view changes)
    9:17 am
  3. page Sham players and their music edited Shawm players and their music Valued yet also disparaged throughout the world ... of Italy. …
    Shawm players and their music
    Valued yet also disparaged throughout the world
    ...
    of Italy.
    We

    We
    have been
    ...
    their faces.
    Although shawm players were always sought after as musicians, but as a professional group, they held a marginalised and difficult position in many countries. We are familiar in Europe with the ambiguity that they experience on the part of society, especially travelling peoples (such as Sintis and Romas) called gypsies by the settled communities who make life difficult for them. In the same way street musicians, even these days, often encounter the same mixture of admiration and disdain from residents. Since the music of the shawm, linked since antiquity with eroticism, arouses the senses, it has often been strongly condemned by religious fundamentalists, in Islam as in Christianity. In the Middle Ages, not only were the musicians persecuted by the Church so were those who associated with them. Even today, the music of the shawm is banned by Islamic groups such as the Taliban. In India, these musicians are part of the group known as “Untouchables”. Traditionalists who employ players for weddings do not communicate with them except through intermediaries. Only temple musicians enjoy more respect, especially within Tibetan Buddhism. Nevertheless, shawms have always been present in processions – for example, in our own time in Northern Guatemala, in front of the church at Easter (but never inside!). Religious groups close to mysticism value the instruments more highly, as for example with the Hamadchas in Morocco where the shawm is played during the ceremonies and rituals of healing.
    Our meetings with musicians have sometimes arisen by chance, sometimes after hearing them in a market or street. A meeting (by accident or destiny?) was also the starting point for our journeys. Thirty years ago, in Thessalonica, during a professional trip together, my wife Verena Nil, knowing that I wanted to learn to play a wind instrument, started a conversation, while waiting at a bus stop, with a man who was holding a musical instrument in his hand. He invited us to come along that same evening to a tavern where he would be playing. The sound of the instrument fascinated us immediately. Since then, every year, we have travelled the cultural routes, known as the Silk Road, between Asia and Europe, as well as in Africa or South America, in regions where these traditional instruments were still alive. Frequently, it was difficult to make ourselves understood, without a common language, but music, gestures, mimicry, and sometimes a little sketch, enabled us to communicate. Often we managed to exchange an instrument we had brought with us. In this way we assembled our collection of shawms which today forms the core of our treasures deposited at the International Centre for Popular Music in Ceret in the South of France (www.music-ceret.com).
    ...
    being exploited.
    We always had permission to take photographs but because of the language barrier, we were not able to record the names of those to whom we were speaking. Furthermore, the majority of traditional musicians use regional stage-names (such as “Frère-Cadet”) and transcribing these into one of the languages of this book would in any case have been inadequate. Thus the pictures remain anonymous as with innumerable generations of musicians who have passed on their music without leaving us their names. Nevertheless, I regret this anonymity and I apologise to the people concerned, as also to the readers.
    ...
    concert halls.
    History
    ...
    of people.
    The

    The
    shawm enjoyed
    ...
    military activities.
    In both Old and New Testaments, reed instruments are mentioned many times. The Old Testament refers to them six times (Samuel 10,5, First Book of Kings 1,40, Isaiah 5, 12 and 30,29 and Jeremy 48, 36 and 51, 27 and the New on six occasions (Matthew 9,13, First Corinthians 14,7 and Revelations 18,27). In these instances the name of the instrument is usually wrongly translated as “flute”. Shawms played for the enthronement of Solomon (First Book of Kings ,28), as Jesus entered the dead girl’s house (Matthew 9,2), where he began by ejecting the oboists who were already playing their lamentations.
    ...
    of shawms.
    In 17th. Century Europe, gradually, shawms were crowded out of the cities, into the countryside (and to shepherds). Thus, the author of a poem of this period allows the modern oboe to address the traditional shawm with contempt:
    Begone, peasant shawm, my sound will defeat yours
    ...
    During the 18th. Century, the traditional instruments became ever more rare so that, by the start of the 20th. Century, they had disappeared completely from many areas as part of the diminution of the countryside. But they remained alive in certain regions and enjoyed, in the second half of the 20th. Century, rehabilitation as national instruments. In Asia and North Africa, their history was more unbroken and the musical tradition has been sustained without interruption until our own day; though with increasing frequency the shawm is being replaced by the clarinet. In South America, where the oboe was introduced by the Portuguese and Spanish and adopted by indigenous musicians, they remain in use only in a few parts of Guatemala and Peru.
    Sounding pipe, mysterious reed
    ...
    double principle.
    At the base of the pipe a horn is fashioned, either from the same wood as the pipe or fitted as a separate piece of wood or metal, more rarely a gourd or animal horn is used. The wooden horns often contain several holes; these influence the quality of the sound and reduce the risk of the wood cracking. Because of its appearance the instrument can be confused with a flute or trumpet. The crucial difference is that these latter instruments have no reeds, the element which gives shawms their rich, harmonic sound. Even today, many texts use the word “flute” when they actually mean shawm. In former times this erroneous naming may sometimes have been due to the fact that flute music was less looked down upon and therefore its use created less risks of causing offence (for example in the bible or in the legend of the Pied Piper of Hamelin).
    In both oboes and clarinets the sound is created by thin blades of bamboo, the reeds, which vibrate as the player blows through them, producing the sound waves. Oboes are fitted with a double reed which opens and closes, very like the vocal chords in the human larynx. Many traditional music cultures use specific types of pressed plant-stems instead of bamboo strips. The bamboo clarinets use a single reed fixed above a slit. The opening and closing rhythmically of this reed produces by the sound. It is the reeds or which give the instrument that particular resonant character which stirs the emotions. The sound should be moving and exciting. Expert players can make their instruments produce sounds very close to those of a human voice and make them laugh or cry.
    ...
    In the major wind instrument cultures, such as India or Turkey, the reeds are relatively soft, held completely within the mouth cavity and regulated almost solely by the pressure of the breath. In Europe, players use much harder reeds, placed between the lips. These are regulated by lip-pressure, which makes the playing more forced and tiring. Traditionally the shawm is played with a circular breathing technique, in which the player retains some air in his or her inflated cheeks. While using this reserve of air in to blow into the instrument he or she breathes in new air through the nose, in such a way as to not interrupt the flow of the music. By doing this the player can create a long, sustained melody.
    The magical sound
    ...
    Central Europe.
    The

    The
    music of
    ...
    with death.
    Its

    Its
    capacity to
    ...
    Northern India).
    In

    In
    view of
    ...
    last century.
    The use of shawms in military music has influenced the style of European folk music, as well as that of regions which were under the influence of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey, the Maghreb). Shawms acquired the reputation of being shrill and monotonous. But they are also capable of a delicate and intimate style, with a sweet and emotional feeling, which has been particularly maintained and developed in Asia. This style is played on cylindrical instruments among which are the shenai of the Indians, the duduk of the Armenians and Georgians, the mey of the Turks and some types of playing in South-East Asia. In our own time, this more subtle style is finding greater recognition through the revival of interest in shawm music, in jazz and in world music.
    (view changes)
    8:58 am
  4. page Sham players and their music edited Shawm players and their music Requested worldwide and Valued yet persecuted. Shawm also…

    Shawm players and their music
    Requested worldwide andValued yet persecuted.
    Shawm
    also disparaged throughout the world
    The shawm
    players and makers are exceptional characters .remarkable individuals. They play for the godssacred music in temples, atfor processions and weddings orwedding-feasts, for group dances,dances where the sensuality rises tocan reach a trance state; some arestate of ecstasy or trance. They may be snake charmers and othersor healers. The folk musicIn some regions of Europe, as part of the shawm, which had a revival inrevivalist movement, the past century, a national instrument became in some regionsmusic of Europe andthe shawm has become an expression of regional identity:identity; in Catalonia and other provincesregions of northernNorthern Spain, in the Bretagne,Brittany, in southernSouthern France (the origin(birthplace of the Troubadourstroubadours and one
    ...
    music) and some specific locations in some parts of Italy.
    During the past

    We have been travelling for
    25 years we have travelled to meet shawm musiciansplayers in Europe,
    ...
    America. We have met them atduring their annual Meetinggathering at St. Martial in the CevennesCevennes, in the South of southern France and at nightly celebrationsduring the “fest-noz” night festivals in Brittany, in the Bretagne, at processions in honour of honouring the saintSaint of the city Sagarossa,Zaragoza, at Christmas in the old town of Naples and atduring their annual Meetingfestival in the small Italian town of Scapoli Italy. Outsideat the Southern end of Europethe Abruzzi. Beyond Europe, they still count as directly passed down folk culturehave a place in many countries:the living traditions of the people; in Morocco we heardfound snake charmers in Morocco, who playMarrakesh (playing these days for tourists now a days, mettourists), the healer of a Suffi-groupSufi group in the southern part of the country and the musicianSouth of the country, a village musician in the mountains behind Tanger, as well as the elegant bandTangiers; in Tunisia a group was playing for tourists in the Tunisian hotel. We metThe piper who was playing for a shawm player,wedding-feast in Sana, capital of Yemen, crossed our path by chance,chance. We have visited musicians’ houses at a weddingChiva in Sanaa,Uzbekistan (on the capitol city of Jemenold Silk Road) and we where invited by a musician in to his house in Chiva (Usbekitstan), one of the old central Asian centresKirghiz village of the silk route or in the Kyrgyzstan Oz;Osh. Waiting for a client to hire them, we found shawm players sittingsquatting in the dust ondusty streets of the curb in Quetta (Pakistan), waiting to be hired; shawm artists played atPakistan town of Quetta. Another was playing for a wedding procession in Ajmer (Rajasthan) to honour the bride and atgroom as they entered the related temple ritual orand again in the Thar desert Tar (on the border of India and Pakistan);Indo-Pakistani border). We saw temple musicians lead theleading a Hindu processionsprocession in southern India;South India. During our journey from Pakistan to China, through the Karakorum Pass, we searched forstayed with a regional shawmlocal player on our long car trip fromin the Indian subcontinent overHindu Kush. We once came upon a group of musicians in the Karakorum-pass to western China and met one atTaklamakan desert, playing for a nightlynighttime dance of the Uigures in the desert Taklimakan in western China andUigures: yet another one in the conservatoryconservatoire of Hotan, who engaged himself with building a prototype that consists of onlyOtan was creating his archaic instrument solely from two straws. We got togethermet up with musicians
    ...
    on the islandisle of Sumatra. And
    ...
    were always impressedstruck by their charisma, which was reflectedthe character and sensitivity expressed in their facial expression.
    Although
    faces.
    Although
    shawm players are in demand, their career iswere always sought after as musicians, but as a professional group, they held a marginalised and difficult professionposition in many countries. The ambivalent attitude theyWe are confronted with is well knownfamiliar in Europe, particularly towardsEurope with the Gipsy, Sintiambiguity that they experience on the part of society, especially travelling peoples (such as Sintis and Romanies. The resident population complicate theirRomas) called gypsies by the settled communities who make life immensely and see them as vagabonds.difficult for them. In many places,the same way street musiciansmusicians, even these days, often encounter athe same mixture of admiration and contempt bydisdain from residents. Since the population, who cause them troubles by setting regulations and despising them. Becausemusic of the shawm music is emotive andshawm, linked since antiquity with eroticism, arouses the senses, it has often been affiliated with eroticism since ancient timesstrongly condemned by religious groups,fundamentalists, in Islam as well as in Christianity, have damned it.Christianity. In mediaeval timesthe Middle Ages, not only shawm players were prosecuted, but occasionally everyonethe musicians persecuted by the Church so were those who had contact toassociated with them. Today especially fundamentalist groups,Even today, the music of the shawm is banned by Islamic groups such as the Taliban, outlaw shawm music.Taliban. In India, these musicians are part of the profession is consideredgroup known as tainted; for example traditionalists“Untouchables”. Traditionalists who book a shawm musicianemploy players for a wedding, onlyweddings do not communicate towith them except through an intermediary. Templeintermediaries. Only temple musicians enjoy more esteem,respect, especially by Buddhistswithin Tibetan Buddhism. Nevertheless, shawms have always been present in the Tibet. The shawm has been and still is played at processions,processions – for example at the Easter celebrationexample, in northern Guatemalaour own time in Northern Guatemala, in front
    ...
    the church – butat Easter (but never inside a church.inside!). Religious groups that are close to mysticism appreciatevalue the shawm, suchinstruments more highly, as for example with the HamadschaHamadchas in Morocco, who useMorocco where the shawm music for their curative rituals.
    We met shawm artists by asking for them at
    is played during the market or on the streetsceremonies and rituals of healing.
    Our meetings with musicians have
    sometimes we even came across themarisen by chance. An encounter, coincidencechance, sometimes after hearing them in a market or destiny, happened right atstreet. A meeting (by accident or destiny?) was also the beginning ofstarting point for our trips: My wife, Verena Nil, started a conversation with a musician in Thessaloniki almost 30journeys. Thirty years ago, who was waiting atin Thessalonica, during a bus stop and was carrying an instrument, because she knewprofessional trip together, my wife Verena Nil, knowing that I
    ...
    to learn how to play a wind instrument.instrument, started a conversation, while waiting at a bus stop, with a man who was holding a musical instrument in his hand. He invited
    ...
    to come along that same evening to hisa tavern in the evening.where he would be playing. The sound
    ...
    the instrument intrigued us.fascinated us immediately. Since thenthen, every year, we have travelled year after year on the cultural routes between Asia and Europe, which areroutes, known as
    ...
    Silk Road, between Asia and Europe, as well as toin Africa andor South America, in one of the world's regions in which folk oboewhere these traditional instruments arewere still alive. Often we were not ableFrequently, it was difficult to understand the language of our counterpart,make ourselves understood, without a common language, but the music, gesture and mimicgestures, mimicry, and sometimes evena little drawings allowedsketch, enabled us to communicate. At timesOften we exchanged instrumentsmanaged to exchange an instrument we had brought along or bought one. Thiswith us. In this way awe assembled our collection of instruments came together,shawms which today forms the basecore of our treasures deposited at the music centreInternational Centre for Popular Music in Céret,Ceret in the South of France (http://www.music-ceret.com).
    We
    (www.music-ceret.com).
    We have
    never made any recordings, because many shawmsound recordings. From previous bad experiences, musicians feel like their skills and their knowledge are exploited, due to bad experiences in the past.too often fear being exploited.
    We always had the permission to take pictures,photographs but due to our large linguistic constraintbecause of the language barrier, we were
    ...
    able to write downrecord the correct names of our dialogue partners.those to whom we were speaking. Furthermore, most folkthe majority of traditional musicians had names that were only understandable regionally (for example "the younger brother")use regional stage-names (such as “Frère-Cadet”) and where the translationtranscribing these into one of the different languages of
    ...
    book would in any case have been unsatisfactory.inadequate. Thus the here exhibited portraitspictures remain nameless, just like countlessanonymous as with innumerable generations of former folk musicians remained nameless, who have passed down theon their music culture.without leaving us their names. Nevertheless, I regret the namelessnessthis anonymity and apologize for itI apologise to the people concerned as wellconcerned, as also to the readers.
    Beside

    Alongside the traditional musicians, we should not forget
    the folk musicians there are also shawm musiciansplayers who perform "ancient" Europeanancient music, in particularparticularly from the baroque era and the renaissance,renaissance periods, in studios and concert halls and recording studios.halls.
    History
    The toneThroughout history, the sound of reedreeds has accompanied humanity since the cultural dawn. Credible documents existhumanity. There is documentary evidence of their existence from the third millennium BCE on3rd century B.C. in the cultural area ofcultures around the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Despite all subsequent changes, through Antiquity (Greece, Egypt, the Mediterranean. The evolving cultural stream ranges, with all differencesEtruscans, and Romans) and alterations, from the ancient world (Egypt, Greece, Etruria, Rome) over the Middle Ages toAges, there is, still today, a cultural continuity with the shawm culturesmusic of the presence in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, to jazz and world music.modern world. Shawms are
    ...
    ancestors of the contemporary oboeour modern concert oboes, our bassoons, clarinets and bassoon, the clarinetsaxophones. The accordion and saxophone. Also accordions and organsorgan are distant offsprings. Hence folkalso descendants. Thus traditional oboes and bamboo clarinetsflutes are the
    ...
    and original ancestorsforebears of today's popular instruments,the instruments which are played at fairsnowadays enjoyed and rituals,can be heard at popular festivals, in concert androoms, dance halls, or used in moviesfilms and operas.
    ...
    ancestors are plainly designed, modestly interesting to look atsimply constructed, modest in appearance but have an exceptional sound; they are often unknown and underestimated.
    The shawms had
    remarkable for their sound. They are either unknown or little known by the majority of people.
    The shawm enjoyed a
    first heightgolden age in Greece,Greece from the 7th century BCE on (Aulos, Pl: Auloi). They were mainly instruments withBC as a double instrument (the “aulos”, plural “auloi”). Most of these consisted of two pipespipes, one for the right respectivelyhand and one for the left hand. Auloileft. (Auloi are also displayed on frescospainted in frescoes in the tombs of ancient Egyptian tombs. In all of great Greece this wasAncient Egypt). They were the leadingpredominant wind instrument. Versatileinstrument throughout the Greek Empire. Many images on pots and vases attest toconfirm this and mediatepass on to us detailed conceptionsrepresentations of thethese instruments and their conventions.uses. Played by the hetaerae, theycourtesans, oboes accompanied the
    ...
    part of the so called symposiacitizens’ meetings of the prestigious citizens.known as “symposia”. They were equally present at the Olympic games, at processions or offerings in front of altars, atGames, for the fights and processions, during altar sacrifices, to accompany work tasks (for exampleexample, while pressing winegrapes or kneading dough), in thedough) and during military or in martial arts. Shawms are mentioned repeatedly in theactivities.
    In both
    Old and New Testament (Hallil, Pl: Hallilim). In theTestaments, reed instruments are mentioned many times. The Old Testament they are mentionedrefers to them six times (1 Samuel 10:5, 1(Samuel 10,5, First Book of Kings 1:40, Iesaia 5:121,40, Isaiah 5, 12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:3630,29 and 51:27)Jeremy 48, 36 and 51, 27 and three times in the New Testamenton six occasions (Matthew 9:23, first Corinthian Epistle 14:79,13, First Corinthians 14,7 and BookRevelations 18,27). In these instances the name of Revelation 18:22). Usually incorrectlythe instrument is usually wrongly translated as flute. For example shawms sounded when David was anointed king (1“flute”. Shawms played for the enthronement of Solomon (First Book of Kings 1:28). When,28), as Jesus stepped intoentered the dead girl’s homehouse (Matthew 9:23)9,2), where he first banishedbegan by ejecting the shawm musicians,oboists who were already playing the keen.their lamentations.
    In the Roman Empire the TibiaeEmpire, tibiae were essential for offeringsindispensable during sacrifices and other rituals, but were alsorites, omnipresent for entertainment. Especially appreciated musicians were often Etruscans (instrument name: Sibulo). Onduring leisure activities; they travelled the ancient bargainroutes of commerce and war routes, shawm instruments probably escorted Alexanderwar. Etruscan musicians (playing the Great to India as well as on“sibulo”) were especially esteemed. Shawm players travelled the conquestslength and progressesbreadth of the Islamic fighters.
    Shawm artists roamed through mediaeval
    medieval Europe and were also migrantremained itinerant musicians inthrough the following
    ...
    They accompanied minnesingerstroubadours and are therefore represented in the Codex Manesse. At tournaments in the European middle ages shawms were played. Shawm artists made musicdepicted in the courtsManesse codex. The shawm was played during medieval tournaments. Pipers played at Court and at fairs. For examplefair; as shown, for example, in the chronicle
    ...
    Diebold Schilling from Lucerne (1513) containsof Lucerne, by the spectacular Imageimpressive image of a shawm duo that performs on Shrove Tuesday (carnival)of oboists playing for the public to dance to.townspeople during the carnival. In picturesdepictions of “danses macabres”, death dancesoften came to seek out men to the shawm, which pitched the keen at funerals, was onesound of the instruments that escorted peopleshawms.
    In 17th. Century Europe, gradually, shawms were crowded
    out of their life.
    In
    the 17th century the shawm players in Europe were slowly crowded out ontocities, into the countryside and(and to shepherds). Thus, the shepherds. The author of a poem fromof this era letsperiod allows the “modern”modern oboe speak to address the traditional shawm inwith contempt:
    “Go away countrified shawm!
    Weg Bäurische Schallmey!
    My

    Begone, peasant shawm, my
    sound must banish you
    Mein Klang muss dich vertreiben
    will defeat yours
    I commit myself deeply
    ich dien auf beede recht
    in times of war and peace,
    In Krieg und Friedens Zeit,
    will do what I must, both in peace or wars
    From church and royal court,
    Der Kirche und bey Hof,
    You must keep away.
    da must ferne bleiben,
    For me
    stay well away
    I will enjoy
    the vines will produce wine,
    mir wird der Reben Safft,
    For you yeast will turn into beer,
    dir Hefen Bier bereit,
    You stay
    juice of grapes; you, the dregs of beer
    Stay
    in theyour village,
    du bleibest auf dem Dorff,
    I live in
    I have the castle and towns,
    ich wohn im Schloss und Städten,
    the towns
    You are adorned by only aadorn yourself with simple ribbon
    dich ziert ein Pfenig-Band und
    Whereas I’m wearing golden chains.
    mich die Guldne Ketten.
    ribbons, I wear a chain of gold.
    During the 18th century18th. Century, the folktraditional instruments started to draw back and plungedbecame ever more rare so that, by the start of the 20th. Century, they had disappeared completely intofrom many areas as part of the rural underground indiminution of the early 20th century in many places. There however,countryside. But they stayedremained alive in certain regions and experienced their rehabilitation as regional national instruments, especiallyenjoyed, in the
    ...
    of the twentieth century.
    Their story ran more continuous in
    20th. Century, rehabilitation as national instruments. In Asia and in North Africa, wheretheir history was more unbroken and the musical loretradition has partiallybeen sustained itself unbowedwithout interruption until today, however pressuredour own day; though with increasing frequency the shawm is being replaced by the emergence of the clarinet. In LatinSouth America, where the shawmoboe was introduced
    ...
    Portuguese and SpaniardsSpanish and then adopted by the aboriginal music, it is meanwhileindigenous musicians, they remain in use only used in circumscribed regionsa few parts of Guatemala
    ...
    Peru.
    Sounding pipe andpipe, mysterious reed
    Under

    Within
    the name shawmcategory of traditional (or “folk”) instruments described as shawms, two differentdistinct groups of wind instruments can be outlined; the folkidentified, oboes and the folk clarinets.
    The instrument
    The body of thean oboe isconsists of a cone-shapedconical or cylindrical pipe made out offrom hard wood (for example box, olive tree, different fruit-trees,(box, olive, various fruitwoods, teak, ebony andebony, sometimes bamboo). The instrumentinstruments can also have a cone-shaped body fromsometimes appear conical on the outside,outside but all have a cylindrical drilling. Most of the timebore. Normally, the pipe has seven holes for the fingersfinger-holes and no key mechanism. Many instruments also havekeys. On most of these instruments, there is a thumb hole, sporadic evenhole for the thumb, sometimes two.
    Folk clarinets
    Clarinets are almost always made offrom bamboo. They
    ...
    often doubled, meaningthat is to say there are
    ...
    each hand, which are played at the same time.together. In the ancient world the oboestimes, some types of oboe (auloi, tibiae) were also built afteron this double principle.
    The bell at

    At
    the lower endbase of the schawm instrumentpipe a horn is fashioned, either made out offrom the same piece of wood as
    ...
    pipe or separately fitted, outfitted as a separate piece of wood or metal, more rarely out of calabasha gourd or horn. Bellsanimal horn is used. The wooden horns often contain several holes; these influence the quality of wood sometimes have multiple sonic holes, which influences the sound quality and reducesreduce the risk
    ...
    wood cracking. Bamboo Clarinets mostly have no bell at all or sometimes a bell madeBecause of a goats horn.
    Due to
    its appearance,appearance the instrument
    ...
    flute or a wooden trumpet. The
    ...
    that these twolatter instruments do not have reeds (see below),no reeds, the element which give thegives shawms their specificrich, harmonic sound. InEven today, many manuscripts they speak of flutes,texts use the word “flute” when they actually mean shawms.shawm. In the pastformer times this wrong description was concerned witherroneous naming may sometimes have been due to the fact,fact that flute
    ...
    was less frownedlooked down upon and therefore its reference causeduse created less scandalrisks of causing offence (for example in the Biblebible or in the sagalegend of the Pied Piper of Hamelin).
    Both in

    In both
    oboes and clarinets,clarinets the sound is created through fine bamboo blades, so calledby thin blades of bamboo, the reeds, which are put into rhythmic movements byvibrate as the respiratory flow of the musician, therefore originatingplayer blows through them, producing the sound waves. In the oboes, thereOboes are fitted with a double reeds that openreed which opens and close, similar tocloses, very like the vocal cordschords in the human laryngeal.larynx. Many traditional musicalmusic cultures use certain haulms that arespecific types of pressed togetherplant-stems instead of bamboo blades. Clarinets operate withstrips. The bamboo clarinets use a simple reed, which is located rightsingle reed fixed above a gapslit. The opening and opens and closesclosing rhythmically of this reed produces by the sound. It is the chamber rhythmically. These reeds or which give the instrument its unique sound,that particular resonant character which activates emotions; it must notstirs the emotions. The sound should be sensed as beautiful, but it is touchingmoving and exciting. Experienced musiciansExpert players can make their instrument sound in a way that comesinstruments produce sounds very close to thethose of a human voice and can let itmake them laugh or moan.cry.
    The assemblymaking of the reeds is a special art.an art in itself. The devoted resourcesnecessary materials can only grow at specific locations.be found in particular places. The tubereed must be harvestedcut at a precise point in time. Each player finishestailors his reed himself in order to obtain his own sound.produce the type of sound suiting to him or her. The structure
    ...
    material is so complexof such complexity that in raw condition it is impossiblenot possible to make a predictionforesee, in the raw state, whether athe reed will soundbe good, exceptionallyexceptional or deficient.inadequate. The reeds have an appointed life-span;a certain life span: as they are playedone plays them they first get more and more euphonic;improve, then they tire themselves out, get olderweaken over time, age and finally getbecome unusable. All efforts of scientifically analyzingEfforts to discover the secrets ofgoverning the characteristicsquality of the reeds, for example to make predictions, turned out to be insufficient.
    The
    reeds using scientific analysis have proved inadequate.
    The
    reeds of thean oboe are attached tomounted on a small pipe made out of metal tube or out of a quill, whose lower end fitsfeather-stem, which is inserted into the playing pipe.main pipe of the instrument. The reeds of thea clarinet are either carvedcut directly into
    ...
    instrument or intofixed to a small bamboo pipe, which is inserted intotube fitting to the pipe of the instrument.
    In the large ancient cultures usingmajor wind instruments,instrument cultures, such as
    ...
    Turkey, the oboe reeds are comparativelyrelatively soft, held completely inwithin the mouth cavity and controlledregulated almost onlysolely by the respiratory pressure; in Europe mostlypressure of the breath. In Europe, players use much harder reeds are used, which layreeds, placed between the lips andlips. These are controlled through their pressure, resulting in a muchregulated by lip-pressure, which makes the playing more exhaustingforced and tiring way of playing.
    In
    tiring. Traditionally the traditional way of playing, the shawms are blownshawm is played with a circular breathing, wherebreathing technique, in which the musician keepsplayer retains some air in
    ...
    her inflated cheeks; while he or she is exhalingcheeks. While using this reserve of air in to blow into the instrument,instrument he or she inhalesbreathes in new air through their nose, so that the instrument never has to be displaced. Therefore producingnose, in such a self defined length of a steadyway as to not interrupt the flow of the music. By doing this the player can create a long, sustained melody.
    The magical sound
    For the most part ofThroughout human history all ceremonies and celebrations,no festival or celebration, whether religious andor profane, would not have been accomplishablewas complete without shawms.shawm music. The magicenchanting sound served priests, healers andhealers, military leaders, lovers and mourners.
    Even an
    the bereaved. As long ago as ancient EgyptianEgypt, an educational text warnstext, used in the teaching of scribes, advised the studentspupils to avoid the companypresence of women with a dubious reputation,of “dubious reputation” who mightwould seduce them by making them singwith the sound of shawms. Lovers to court their oboe. Smallsweethearts use tiny shawms are still used todayto this day on the island of Sumatra to court their beloved girl. OriginallySumatra. In the beginning, shawms were mainly instruments of women. Associations existed tochiefly women’s instruments. They were associated with the motherlymother and earthly gods, toearth goddesses, Cybele and Demeter. AuloiThe Greek auloi were closely connectedlinked to ritualsthe rites and mystery,mysteries whose patron
    ...
    of the transgression of everyday rules and restrictions, of ecstasy, theof wine, of all forms of sensuality in general and also of reincarnation. In his entourage, were the shawms of satyr, joyful and hormic forest ghosts. In ancient
    ...
    was a councilcollege of notable musicians forwho directed official acts and occasions as well asrites and there was a group of female slaves of Syrian pipers, whose music was justslaves who were as famous as itsrenowned for their knowledge of the art of love. The roman mosaiclove as for their music. Mosaics in Cologne provesdemonstrate that the Tibiaetibiae were played in all ofthroughout the great Roman Empire and middle Europe as well.
    The
    far as Central Europe.
    The
    music of the shawm isshawms was associated with the vitalityforces of life as well as destruction.and death. It was always used to heal diseases. Becauseemployed in the music takes over the feelingscuring of the listeners, the shawm artists are oftensickness. The piper was seen as magicians, who take control over peoplea magician who, through theirhis music, like in the Pied Piper of Hamelin.acquired power over men. The shawm is anwas the instrument of frontier crossing,not only for breaking restrictions and of sensuality andbut also for connecting with the relationship to extrasensory powers, toinvisible, with gods and demons, towith the devil and towith death.
    The ability

    Its capacity
    to fiercely toucharouse powerful emotions made the shawm into an accompanying instrument for tournaments. For example, into accompany sporting events. In Indonesia the shawm isshawms are still playedused to localaccompany the regional martial arts, likeas they were with the ancient Greek, the EtruscansGreeks, Etruscans, and Romans did, and in the tournaments of the European Middle Ages. Also for wrestling,They are also still used during wrestling matches in many Asian countries, the shawm is played still today. We experienced the accompanimentcountries. For example, we once found a duo of shawmsshawm and drums to equinetambour playing during a polo tournament in Ladakh,Ladakh (in Northern India).
    In view of
    the “Indian Tibet”.
    Due to
    stirring effect that the spurring impact, which shawms can have,shawm could have it was comprehensible that they wereof use and was used in the military. Theyby armies. Shawms served thewith both Greek as well as theand Roman army. Inarmies and with the Ottoman-Turkish army they weresoldiers of the central air instrumentsOttoman Empire. It was the main musical instrument of the elite troopcorps of the Janissary.Janissaries. While the Occident established theirWest assimilated percussion instruments (especially the big barrels) in theinto concert music, the shawms were absorbedmore readily accepted into the western military bands. InThere were shawm players at the French court and there were oboists andstill Breton shawm players were still military musicianspipers in the French army during world war one.
    The
    Army into the last century.
    The
    use of the shawm as ashawms in military instrumentmusic has retroacted on itsinfluenced the style inof European folk musicmusic, as well as inthat of regions which were under the influence of the Ottoman sphere of influenceEmpire (Turkey, the Maghreb). They obtained aShawms acquired the reputation of being skirlshrill and monotonous. But there isthey are also capable of a softdelicate and intimate stylestyle, with a mellowsweet and emotional expression,feeling, which has been preservedparticularly maintained and elaborately advanced mainlydeveloped in Asia.
    ...
    is played withon cylindrical built instruments. Among these, thereinstruments among which are the Benares-styleshenai of the Shenai in India,Indians, the Duduk in Armenia and Georgia,duduk of the Mey in TurkeyArmenians and a partGeorgians, the mey of the representationTurks and some types of playing in SoutheastSouth-East Asia. NewlyIn our own time, this more subtle style is undergoing afinding greater recognition through the revival and shawm music is attracting moreof interest by the western worldin shawm music, in jazz and in world music.

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  5. page Instruments Photos edited INSTRUMENTS, INSTRUMENTS, PHOTOS (From ... Herzka Nil) {_NZUMARI_Zanzibar_(left),_ALGHAI…

    INSTRUMENTS,
    INSTRUMENTS, PHOTOS (From
    ...
    Herzka Nil)
    {_NZUMARI_Zanzibar_(left),_ALGHAITA_Cameroon_(right)+.jpg} African countries NZUMARI Zanzibar (left), ALGHAITA Cameroon (right)
    {Africa_Hornclarinetts+.jpg} Africa HORNCLARINETTS
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  6. page home edited ... {under_construction.jpg} International Network for Traditional Reed Instruments and Music (I…
    ...
    {under_construction.jpg}
    International Network for Traditional Reed Instruments and Music (INTRIM)
    ...
    und -Musik (INTRIM)Réseau(INTRIM)
    Réseau
    International pour
    ...
    Clarinettes en BambouLinksBambou
    Links
    und Informationen
    Author©: Heinz Stefan Herzka Know more / Savoir plus / Mehr wissen: Schalmeien-weltweit (D) Centre internacional de musica popular (F) CIMP
    neu / new / nouveau : {BDCHautboïstespopulaires.pdf}
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Monday, June 17

  1. page home edited Aulosinternet {under_construction.jpg} International Network for Traditional Reed Instrumen…

    Aulosinternet
    {under_construction.jpg}
    International Network for Traditional Reed Instruments and Music (INTRIM)
    ...
    und -Musik (INTRIM)
    Réseau
    (INTRIM)Réseau International pour
    ...
    Clarinettes en Bambou
    Links
    BambouLinks und Informationen
    Author©: Heinz Stefan Herzka Know more / Savoir plus / Mehr wissen: Schalmeien-weltweit (D) Centre internacional de musica popular (F) CIMP
    neu / new / nouveau : {BDCHautboïstespopulaires.pdf}
    {Aulosinternet_Oboen.jpg} {Aulosinternet_Klarinetten2.jpg}
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    8:30 am

Saturday, June 8

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